laboratory of Biochemistry of Insect adaptability of Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Brief information.


Main directions of laboratory research: genomics, population genetics and biochemistry of insect adaptability, structurally functional organization of insect genomes, the mechanisms of adaptation to the environment, the genetic structure of populations and the phylogenetics of insects, the search for biologically active substances for insects (biostimulators and immunosuppressants), ontogenetic and evolutionary patterns of insect immunity formation.

The laboratory staff:

·                saltykova E.S., Senior Scientist , Ph.D. Ecological genetics and adaptation of insects, social insects, insect immunity, honey bee disease, the evolution and ontogeny of insect immunity, biochemical mechanisms of insect pest resistance

·                poskryakov A.V., Senior Scientist, Ph.D. Applied entomology, genetic, structural and functional aspects of proteins and nucleic acids.

·                gaifullina L.R., Scientist, Ph.D. Cellular and humoral insect immunity, evolution and ontogeny of insect immunity, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of insect adaptation, gene expression, social insects, honeybee disease.

·                ilyasov R.A., Scientist, Ph.D Population genetics, molecular biology, molecular ecology, social insects, insect immunity, phylogeography, phylogenetics, molecular taxonomy, honey bee, Apis mellifera, Apis cerana, the expression of genes, evolution, cladistics, bee diseases, Nosema, bee viruses, Varroa.

·                sokolyanskaya M.P., Scientist, Ph.D Insect resistance to insecticides of different classes, the biochemical mechanisms of resistance, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of insect adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

·                nikolenko A.G., the head of the laboratory, Ph.D., professor Genomics, population genetics and biochemistry of insect adaptability.

Scientific achievements of the laboratory.

The complex of molecular genetic methods, working in conditions of intense intraspecific hybridization and is necessary for the identification and preservation of the gene pool of aboriginal for Russia bees (subspecies Apis mellifera mellifera) has been designed. Four genetic reservations of honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera in the Urals have been identified. The new scheme of intraspecific phylogenetics of bees of genus Apis has been offered.

The differences in the character of the immune response and the degree of adaptation to the environment of the forest zone of Russia for aboriginal bee A. m. mellifera and bees of southern races have been shown.

The new express indicators of sustainability for selection in beekeeping have been developed.

Chitooligosaccharides have been determined to affect the rate of morphogenetic processes, stimulate immune responses mimicking components of bacterial cell wall, and improve the overall insect resistance.

The possibility of insect immunization (Musca domestica L., Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) with non-lethal pathogen dose has been proved: the immune response is stimulated, a long-term immune memory is formed, and the overall survival rate is increases.

Ontogenetic differences in the immune response of insects have been detected: the prevalence of non-specific resistance mechanisms in the larval stage and more specific immune mechanisms in adults.

The role of insect ontogeny critical periods associated with the molting stages in the formation of long-term immune memory has been shown.

It was revealed that the activity of immune factors in larvae induced during the critical periods of ontogeny is reproduced in the next two generations at the same stage of insect development without repeated action of the pathogen.

On the example of the northern Bashkir population of the dark forest bee the ability to save the gene pool of honeybee in the population of open type has been shown which refutes the existing in Russia paradigm about the possibility of this process only in the populations of the closed type. This result can greatly simplify the technological problems associated with the artificial isolation and process of inbreeding.

The gene geographic analysis of natural Burzyan population of dark forest bee A. m. mellifera has been performed, the boundaries of the area have been defined, the central, peripheral, and hybrid zones, as well as the direction of gene introgression of the southern subspecies have been highlighted. It is hypothesized on the availability of dual genetic boundary in a natural population of honeybee.

The analysis of the COI-COII locus nucleotide sequences in the Burzyan population of honeybee A. m. mellifera has been performed. Preliminary data suggest the presence of a previously unknown deletion which may become a promising genetic marker.

A method for molecular-genetic diagnosis of the pathogenic fungus Ascospaera apis has been developed. A high percentage of the fungus occurrence (over 50%) in the worker bees form conditionally healthy colonies in the Urals has been shown.

The mechanism of chitosan fungistatic action on A. apis has been analyzed. It appears in the formation of same-sex mycelium and in the abnormal development of hyphae, which disrupts their ability to form spore asci and maturation of full value spore balls.

The high moleclar chitosan has been shown to triggers as an elicitor in honey bee adults the transcriptional activity of defensin and abecine genes, and stimulates the cellular response of hemolymph.

Experimentally it has been shown that chitosan induces in insects factors of immunological recognition and cellular responses of hemolymph and triggers phenoloxidase independent mechanisms of pathogen opsonization. Succination of chitosan molecule enhances its impact on phenoloxidase dependent mechanisms, induces the formation of hemagglutinins with a wide range of carbohydrate specificity, and increases the diversity of hemocyte morphology and function.

It is revealed that the fractional selection with entomopathogenic bacterial preparation bitoxibacillin during 15 generations of housefly Musca domestica line with sublethal doses in combination with the selecting dose contributes to the rapid growth of the resistance indicator. Selection with sub-lethal doses of bitoxibacillin induces a wide range of defensive reactions in the housefly larvae promoting the rapid formation of a high resistance.

The laboratory news

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